Sociolinguistics in Education
Professor Nancy H. Hornberger <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Office: Room 334
Class list e-mail address: email@example.com
Blackboard site: https://courseweb.library.upenn.edu
In this course, we explore the educational consequences of linguistic and cultural diversity. The course provides a broad overview of sociolinguistics, introducing both early foundational work and current issues in the field. Topics include language contact and language prestige, multilingualism and language ecology, regional and stylistic variation, verbal repertoire and communicative competence, language and social identity, codeswitching and diglossia, language socialization and language ideology, as they relate to educational policy and practice in the United States and around the world.
Blommaert, J. (2010). The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hornberger, N. H., & McKay, S. L. (Eds.). (2010). Sociolinguistics and Language Education. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Bulk pack of * readings available at Campus Copy, 3907 Walnut Street, 215-386-6410.
24 Jan Meeting 1 Language prestige and language ideologies
31 Jan Meeting 2 Language contact and multilingualism
7 Feb Meeting 3 Language change, dialect, and style
14 Feb Meeting 4 Ebonics, creoles and pidgins
21 Feb Meeting 5 Bidialectalism and critical language awareness/ In-class EXAM
28 Feb Meeting 6 Language and gender/ Journal portfolio
7 Mar BREAK - Spring recess
14 Mar Meeting 7 Language acquisition and socialization/ Working group project DUE
21 Mar Meeting 8 Speech communities & communicative repertoires
28 Mar Meeting 9 Ethnography of speaking
4 Apr Meeting 10 Communicative competence /In-class EXAM
11 Apr Meeting 11 Critical and multimodal literacies in English language teaching
18 Apr Meeting 12 Codeswitching and stance
25 Apr Meeting 13 Language shift, maintenance and revitalization/Journal portfolio DUE
27 Apr Final essay DUE by noon
Course organization and requirements
Reading assignments are to be completed in advance of the class meeting. You are required to keep up with the readings and participate in class. The readings (and class lectures) are the foundation for the three basic sets of requirements: working groups, weekly journals, and exams.
· Working groups (15% of final grade)
You will each be assigned to a working group of 3-4 classmates. Working groups will be given various in-class and out-of-class assignments throughout the semester. All members of the working group are expected to participate actively and equally in accomplishing the assignments. You will also post your weekly journals to your working group members.
Working group project (10% of final grade) -- Details will be explained in class.
· Weekly journals (35% of final grade)
Journal entries: Mention one idea or one example from the readings and provide your opinion about it. You may reflect on how it relates to your own experience.
Each week you are expected to write one journal entry based on the week's readings, in response to the above prompt. Journal entries are to be 150-200 words long. On each entry, include your name, date and time of the e-mail, and the meeting #. E-mail or post your entry to your assigned working group members by 12 noon the day BEFORE class. Print out a copy of each entry for your journal portfolio (see below). There will be a total of 10 entries, beginning Week 3 and ending Week 12.
Journal responses: Comment on a working group member’s entry and add your own perspective. Compare and contrast.
You are expected to write a total of 4 responses to entries by your working group members, 2 before the spring break and 2 after the break. Journal responses are to be 150-200 words long. On each response, include your name, date and time of the e-mail, and the meeting # for the entry to which you are responding. E-mail or post your response to your working group members within one week from the posting of the entry to which you are responding. Print out a copy of your response, along with the entry to which you are responding, for your journal portfolio.
Journal portfolios: Assemble all your entries and responses in one folder. Please do not use plastic sleeves for each entry, since we will write comments directly on them. We will collect your journal portfolios at the last meeting before the break and again at the last class meeting of the semester. We will return them to you after we have reviewed them. You will be graded on the completeness and organization of your portfolio, the accuracy of your spelling and grammar, and the quality of your comments.
DUE at Meeting 6: Journal entries for Meetings 3-6 and 2 responses (15% of final grade)
DUE at Meeting 13: Journal entries for Meetings 7-12 and 2 responses (20% of final grade)
· Exams (40% of final grade)
There will be two one-hour short-answer mid-term exams and one final take-home essay exam.
IN CLASS at Meeting 5: One-hour short-answer mid-term (10% of final grade)
IN CLASS at Meeting 10: One-hour short-answer mid-term (10% of final grade)
TAKE HOME due by noon on 27 April: Essay exam (20% of final grade)
All assignments must be turned in on time or your grade will be lowered accordingly.
Use APA style for all written work-see Course Blackboard: External Links.
Plagiarism and cheating are not tolerated-see Course Blackboard: Course Information.
You are expected to complete all course work within the semester. If extenuating circumstances require you to take an incomplete, you must request permission to do so from me at least 2 weeks before the end of the semester. To make up the incomplete, you must turn in your work at least 4 weeks before the end of the semester in which you wish to receive a grade. If the work is not made up after 1 year, your incomplete becomes permanent.
ALL readings (except for Meeting 1) are to be completed BEFORE class meets.
Readings marked * are reprints included in the course packet available for purchase.
Readings marked ** are classics available on the class Blackboard site and on reserve at Van Pelt, in:
Alessandro Duranti (Ed.). (2001). Linguistic anthropology: A reader: Blackwell.
Christina Bratt Paulston & G. Richard Tucker (Eds.). (2003). Sociolinguistics: The essential readings. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Meeting 1 Language prestige and language ideologies
English as a world language; standard and minority languages; language attitudes.
case: World Englishes
video: Multilingual Hong Kong
McGroarty, M. E. (2010). Language and ideologies. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 3-39).
McKay, S. L. (2010). English as an international language. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 89-115).
**Lambert, W. E. (1967). A social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues, 23(2), 91-109. Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 305-321.
*Rubdy, R. (2003). Remaking Singapore for the new age: Official ideology and the realities of practice in language-in-education. In A. M. Y. Lin & P. W. Martin (Eds.), Decolonisation, globalisation: Language-in-education policy and practice (pp. 55-73). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Meeting 2 Language contact and multilingualism
Typologies of multilingual nations; educational treatment of multilingualism.
case: Sámi (Norway)
Pennycook, A. (2010). Nationalism, identity and popular culture. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 62-86).
*Haugen, E. (1973). The curse of Babel. In M. Bloomfield & E. Haugen (Eds.), Language as a Human Problem (pp. 33-43). New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
*Corson, D. (1995). Norway's Sami Language Act: Emancipatory implications for the world's aboriginal peoples. Language in Society, 24(4), 493-514.
Meeting 3 Language change, dialect and style
Regional and social varieties (dialects) of English; linguistic variables; style and styling.
cases: regional and stylistic varieties of English (US)
video: American Tongues
Jaspers, J. (2010). Style and styling. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 177-204).
*Rickford, J. R. (1996). Regional and social variation. In S. L. McKay & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching (pp. 151-194). New York: Cambridge.
**Labov, W. (1969). Some sociolinguistic principles. In W. Labov, The Study of Nonstandard English (pp. 19-38). Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 234-250.
**Wolfram, W. (2000). On constructing vernacular dialect norms. In J. P. Boyle & A. Okrent (Eds.), CLS 36: The 36th meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 251-271.
Meeting 4 Ebonics, creoles and pidgins
Origins and characteristics of Ebonics, pidgins and creoles.
cases: Gullah (US) & Ebonics (US)
video: The Story of English V: Black on White
Siegel, J. (2010). Pidgins and creoles. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 232-262).
**Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1972). Signifying and marking: Two Afro-American speech acts. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 161-179). Reprinted in Duranti, 151-164.
*Dalby, D. (1976). Black through White: Patterns of communication in Africa and the New World. In W. Wolfram & N. Clarke (Eds.), Black-White Speech Relations (pp. 99-138). Washington D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.
*Smitherman, G. (1998). Black English/Ebonics: What it be like? In T. Perry & L. Delpit (Eds.), The Real Ebonics Debate (pp. 29-37 plus references). Boston: Beacon Press.
Meeting 5 Bidialectalism and critical language awareness
Dialect readers; critical hip-hop language pedagogies.
cases: Ann Arbor (US) & Oakland (US) - Ebonics resolution
video (possibly): Do you speak American? (out West) – AAE in southern California.
Alim, H. S. (2010). Critical language awareness. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 205-231).
Reyes, A. (2010). Language and ethnicity. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 398-426).
**Morgan, M. (1994). The African-American speech community: Reality and sociolinguists. In M. Morgan (ed.), Language and the Social Construction of Identity in Creole Situations (pp. 121-148). Reprinted in Duranti, 74-94.
*Rickford, J., & Rickford, A. (1995). Dialect readers revisited. Linguistics and Education, 7(2), 107-128.
*T. Perry (1998). “I ‘on Know why they be trippin’” Reflections on the Ebonics debate. In T. Perry & L. Delpit (Eds.), The Real Ebonics Debate (pp. 3-15 plus references). Boston: Beacon Press
Meeting 6 Language and gender
Investment and imagined communities; gendered social relations and ideologies of gender; sexism in language and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
case: white middle class English (US)
video (possibly): Deborah Tannen, You Just Don't Understand
Norton, B. (2010). Language and identity. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 349-369).
Higgins, C. (2010). Gender identities in language education. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 370-397).
**Lakoff, R. (1975), Language and Woman’s Place (pp. 4-5, 28-33, 35). Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 203-207.
**Gal, S. (1991). Language, gender, and power: An anthropological review. In M. di Leonardo (Ed.), Gender at the crossroads of knowledge: Feminist anthropology in the postmodern era (pp. 175-203). Reprinted in Duranti, 420-430.
**Ochs, E., & Taylor, C. (1995). The "father knows best" Dynamic in dinnertime narratives. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp. 97-120). Reprinted in Duranti, 431-449.
Meeting 7 Language acquisition and socialization
Restricted and elaborated codes; child language socialization and social class; situation; deficit vs. difference vs. discourse.
cases: English (Britain & US); languages of the Pacific Islands
*Bernstein, B. (1972). A sociolinguistic approach to socialization: With some reference to educability. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication (pp. 465-497). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
**Heath, S. B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in Society, 11(1), 49-76. Reprinted in Duranti, 318-342.
**Ochs, E., & Schieffelin, B. B. (1984). Language acquisition and socialization: Three developmental stories and their implications. In R. A. Shweder & R. A. LeVine (Eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion (pp. 276-320). Reprinted in Duranti, 263-301.
*Watson-Gegeo, K. A. (1992). Thick explanation in the ethnographic study of child socialization: A longitudinal study of the problem of schooling for Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands) children. New Directions for Child Development, 58, 51-66.
Meeting 8 Speech communities and communicative repertoires
Definitional criteria; uses, attitudes, functions of language varieties; globalization and multilingualism.
cases: Java (Indonesia) & Hmong (US)
Blommaert (2010), Chapter 1 (pp. 1-27). A critical sociolinguistics of globalization.
**Gumperz, J. (1968). The speech community. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (pp. 381-386). Reprinted in Duranti, 43-52.
*Geertz, C. (1972). Linguistic etiquette. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected Readings (pp. 167-179). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
*Weinstein-Shr, G. (1993). Literacy and social process: A community in transition. In B. Street (Ed.), Cross-cultural Approaches to Literacy (pp. 272-293). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meeting 9 Ethnography of speaking
Speech acts and events; system and patterning; participant structures; a sociolinguistics of mobile resources; scale, indexicality, polycentricity.
cases: American Indian English (US) & Chinese (China)
Blommaert (2010), Chapter 2 (pp. 28-62). A messy new marketplace.
**Philips, S. U. (1970). Acquisition of rules for appropriate speech usage. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Bilingualism and language contact: Anthropological, linguistic, psychological, and social aspects (pp.77-101). Reprinted in Duranti, with title “Participant structures and communicative competence: Warm Springs children in community and classroom”, 302-317.
**Hymes, D. H. (1972). Models of the interaction of language and social life. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication (pp. 35-71). Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 30-47.
*Cazden, C., Carrasco, R., Maldonado-Guzman, A. A., & Erickson, F. (1985). The contribution of ethnographic research to bicultural bilingual education. In J. Alatis & J. Staczek (Eds.), Perspectives on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (pp. 157-173).
*Schoenhals, M. (1994). Encouraging talk in Chinese classrooms. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 25(4), 399-412.
Meeting 10 Communicative competence
Linguistic competence and performance; what is possible, feasible, appropriate, done; rules of speaking; norms of the periphery.
cases: English L2 (South Africa) & Spanish L2 (Peru)
video (possibly): CrossTalk (inter-ethnic communication in Britain)
Blommaert (2010), Chapter 3 (pp. 80-101 only). Locality, the periphery and images of the world.
Rymes, B. (2010). Classroom discourse analysis: A focus on communicative repertoires. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 528-546).
**Hymes, D. H. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected Readings (pp. 269-293). Reprinted in Duranti, 53-73.
*Hornberger, N. H. (1989). Trámites and transportes: The acquisition of second language communicative competence for one speech event in Puno, Peru. Applied Linguistics, 10(2), 214-230.
*Hornberger, N. H., & Chick, K. (2001). Co-constructing school safetime: Safetalk practices in Peruvian and South African classrooms. In M. Heller & M. Martin-Jones (Eds.), Voices of Authority: Education and Linguistic Difference (pp. 31-55). Westport, Connecticut: Ablex Publishing.
*Cazden, C. (1989). Contributions of the Bakhtin circle to "communicative competence". Applied Linguistics, 10(2), 116-127. OPTIONAL READING.
Meeting 11 Critical and multimodal literacies in English language teaching
Critical literacy pedagogy; academic literacies; technology and multimodality; truncated repertoires.
Cases: South Africa, UK, Singapore: ELT Rap Workshop (Angel Lin 2010 powerpoint on Course Blackboard).
Blommaert (2010), Chapter 4 (pp. 102-136). Repertoires and competence.
Janks, H. (2010). Language, power and pedagogies. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 40-61).
Street, B., & Leung, C. (2010). Sociolinguistics, language teaching and new literacy studies. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 290-316).
Vaish, V., & Towndrow, P. A. (2010). Multimodal literacy in language classrooms. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 317-345).
Meeting 12 Codeswitching and stance
Intersentential and intrasentential; situational and metaphorical;
boundary-levelling and boundary maintaining strategies;
'on the spot,' 'in the head,' and 'out of the mouth' factors.
cases: French/Corsican (Corsica) and English/Sepedi (Limpopo)
Kamwangamalu, N. M. (2010). Multilingualism and codeswitching in education. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 116-142).
Hornberger, N. H. (2010). Language and education: A Limpopo lens. In Hornberger & McKay (pp. 549-564).
*Gumperz, J. J. (1972). Verbal strategies in multilingual communication. In R. Abrahams & R. C. Troike (Eds.), Language and Cultural Diversity in American Education (pp. 184-197). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
**Gumperz, J. (1982). Contextualization conventions. In J. Gumperz, Discourse Strategies. Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 139-155.
*Jaffe, A. (2007). Codeswitching and stance: Issues in interpretation. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6, 53-77.
Meeting 13 Language shift, maintenance and revitalization
functional specialization; diglossia; globalization, the state, and inequality.
case: Navajo (US)
Blommaert (2010), Chapter 6 (pp. 153-179). Old and new inequalities.
**Ferguson, C. A. (1959). Diglossia. Word, 15, 325-340. Reprinted in Paulston & Tucker, 345-358.
*Spolsky, B., & Irvine, P. (1982). Sociolinguistic aspects of the acceptance of literacy in the vernacular. In F. Barkin, E. Brandt, & J. Ornstein-Galicia (Eds.), Bilingualism and Language Contact: Spanish, English, and Native American Languages (pp. 73-79).
*McLaughlin, D. (1989). The sociolinguistics of Navajo literacy. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 20(4), 275-290.
* Spolsky, Bernard. (2002). Prospects for the survival of the Navajo language: A reconsideration. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 33(2), 139-162.
* McCarty, T., M. E. Romero, & O. Zepeda (2006). Reimagining multilingual America: Lessons from Native American youth. In O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, & M. E. Torres-Guzmán (Eds.), Imagining Multilingual Schools (pp. 91-110).